A difficult question without a ‘right’ answer: who are the best jazz saxophone players of all time?
In this article we’re checking out some of the great saxophonists – on both alto and tenor – throughout history. Plus we’ve also highlighted an essential album from each of them, with some videos to check out too.
For many people, the saxophone will always be the archetypal jazz instrument and the first thing that comes to mind when they think of the genre.
And for good reason too.
A handful of the most famous jazz saxophone players in the history of the music are responsible for many of the greatest jazz albums and bands of all time.
Not to mention that they’re often great innovators, improvisors and language-changers in the jazz style.
We’ve already published a list of 10 great modern jazz saxophonists (who all came to prominence from the 1980s/’90s onwards), so this ‘all-time’ list focuses on earlier players from jazz’s ‘golden era’.
Of course, putting together a list of best sax players like this is always tricky and potentially controversial, as there are dozens of master musicians who could realistically be included here.
Hopefully though, this is a good springboard for you to discover (or rediscover) some of the greatest jazz musicians of all time.
So here’s our list of some of the best jazz saxophonists ever, separated into the alto sax players versus the tenor saxophone legends…
The most famous tenor saxophone players in jazz history
Hawk, or Bean as he was also sometimes nicknamed, was the father of jazz saxophone: remarkably it was not really considered a jazz instrument until his emergence in the 1920s.
He was a major soloist during the swing era, playing most notably with Fletcher Henderson’s big band, and his vibrato-laden, surprisingly complex arpeggiated lines influenced a generation of jazz saxophone players.
He was also present for the birth of bebop, playing on sessions with the likes of Thelonious Monk, Dizzy Gillespie and Max Roach.
Later his instantly recognisable tenor sound was heard in relatively Avant garde settings, like the 1963 album with Sonny Rollins and Paul Bley.
“When I heard Hawk, I learned to play ballads” – Miles Davis
Key Coleman Hawkins recording: Body and Soul
This compilation album features Hawkins’ most famous track. Almost entirely abandoning the melody, his two-chorus solo on the 1939 title track is one of the great improvisations in jazz.
Check out our pick of 10 essential Coleman Hawkins songs here
Coleman Hawkins’ heavy, muscular tone was very much the dominant early tenor style. But in the mid-1930s, Lester Young replaced Hawk in the tenor chair in Fletcher Henderson’s orchestra, and the younger man’s style caused quite a stir.
The President, or Prez, as he was nicknamed by Billie Holiday, executed his thoughtful linear ideas with a soft, lithe tone that was almost the opposite of Hawkins’.
After a traumatic experience in the military during the Second World War, Young suffered with substance abuse problems and ill health for the rest of his life, with the quality of his later work arguably suffering.
However, his early efforts with Count Basie, Billie Holiday, Benny Goodman and his own groups contain some of the most joyous saxophone playing ever recorded.
Charlie Parker, Dexter Gordon, Stan Getz, Lee Konitz and Zoot Sims are just some of the famous sax players who would name him as a primary influence, and the ‘Cool school’ that came to prominence in the 1950s was particularly indebted to him.
Young was also something of a cultural icon: he wore a distinctive pork pie hat and coined a number of expressions that are now commonplace, such as “cool” and the word “bread” to mean money.
Key recording: The Lester Young Story
This compilation includes classic work with Basie, plus plenty of tracks from his magical collaboration with Billie Holiday.
Getz was known as ‘The Sound’ for his famously lyrical tenor saxophone tone.
He first found fame in the jazz world as a member of Woody Herman’s ‘Second Herd’ big band in the late 1940s, with his ballad solo on ‘Early Autumn’ becoming a hit.
As he launched a career as a soloist, his light, Lester Young-inspired sound saw him categorised in the press as a Cool jazz player, although he was equally comfortable playing with bebop musicians like Sonny Stitt and Dizzy Gillespie.
In the 1960s he collaborated with Brazilian guitarist João Gilberto, spearheading the Bossa Nova craze that took the US by storm and finding huge commercial success with Getz/Gilberto and the single ‘The Girl from Ipanema’ in particular.
A peerless technician, he rarely sounds less than pristine and was always completely fluent, even at extremely fast tempos.
He is still in fantastic from on his final recordings, the duo sets with Kenny Baron, which were made shortly before his 1991 death from liver cancer.
Key Recording: Stan Getz and the Oscar Peterson Trio
In 1957 Getz recorded a swinging selection of standards as guest soloist with Oscar Peterson’s intimate drummer-less trio. His solo on the up-tempo ‘I Want To Be Happy’ is simply flawless.
Sonny Rollins’s tenor saxophone playing is marked by a supreme swagger and incredible rhythmic confidence.
A famed in-the-moment improviser, he is capable developing a simple melodic motif through a seemingly limitless number of variations without the well of ideas running dry.
As early as 1949, aged just 19, he was recording with famed bebop pianist Bud Powell. The mid-to-late ‘50s saw him make a brilliant run of albums under his own name, including Saxophone Colossus, Tenor Madness, The Sound of Sonny and Newk’s Time, among others.
Rollins is famously self-critical and between 1959 and 1961, feeling that his playing didn’t live up to the hype he was receiving in the press, he took a sabbatical from recording and performance, practising for up to 16 hours a day under the Williamsburg Bridge in New York.
His comeback album, The Bridge, is one of his finest and cemented his place as one of the best jazz musicians of all time.
Through the ’60s he explored raucous free jazz-inspired sounds on albums like Our Man in Jazz and East Broadway Rundown, while his later work has often taken on a calypso flavour.
Rollins has now retired from playing due to medical issues, but continues to give deeply insightful interviews.
Key Sonny Rollins recording: Saxophone Colossus
It was a hard choice (as our list of 10 amazing Sonny Rollins albums shows), but this 1956 set features ‘St Thomas’, Rollins’ best-known composition. His performance on ‘Blue 7’ has been analysed extensively for its use of clever motivic development.
John Coltrane was a relentless practiser who never stopped searching and striving to develop as an artist.
A relatively late bloomer amongst his fellow saxophone players, he did not make his first record as a leader until he was 30 years old. He initially made his mark with mid-‘50s hard bop, as a member of Miles Davis’ First Great Quintet and on his own albums like Blue Train.
In the mid-1950s and early ‘60s his own compositions – ‘Giant Steps’, ‘Countdown’ and ’26-2’ – explored new harmonic territory, with highly challenging harmonic sequences based on key centres moving quickly in thirds.
He was also present for the birth of modal jazz, appearing on Davis’ seminal Kind of Blue. As a saxophonist, ‘Trane is noted for his metallic, snaking tone (partly due to his choice of mouthpiece and saxophone) and his unique ‘sheets of sound’ approach.
His 1960s quartet is considered one of the all-time great jazz groups, while his work in his final years embraced the new free jazz movement and took on a deeply spiritual direction.
Key John Coltrane album: A Love Supreme
Coltrane’s 1964 masterpiece A Love Supreme features his classic quartet – with McCoy Tyner, Jimmy Garrison and Elvin Jones in the rhythm section – on an intense suite of religion-inspired modal jazz.
Check out our round up of 10 of his best album here.
Henderson showed huge talent as a teenager and was a devoted student of his musical forefathers, including saxophone players Lester Young, Charlie Parker, Stan Getz and others.
He emerged in the 1960s, becoming almost the in-house sax player for Blue Note Records.
His sideman appearances for the label ranged from the funky hard bop of Horace Silver’s Song For My Father and Lee Morgan’s The Sidewinder, to the modal jazz of McCoy Tyner’s The Real McCoy, to the more Avant garde-flavoured Point of Departure by Andrew Hill.
His own Blue Note albums from that period are excellent too, including Page One, Our Thing, Inner Urge and Mode for Joe.
Later highlights include the live trio date State of the Tenor and his early ‘90s major label come back albums on Verve, which paid tribute to Billy Strayhorn, Antonio Carlos Jobim and Miles Davis respectively.
Key Joe Henderson album: Inner Urge
The title track of this 1966 classic has become something of a modal jazz standard, while the set finishes with a reharmonised version of Cole Porter’s ‘Night and Day’. McCoy Tyner, Bob Cranshaw and Elvin Jones form a brilliant rhythm section.
Acclaimed saxophonist and composer, champion of the soprano saxophone, renowned sage and philosopher, Wayne Shorter has spearheaded jazz innovations for seven decades.
He was enlisted in Art Blakey’s Jazz Messengers in the late ’50s, seen by many to be a finishing school for future stars, contributing his concise tenor saxophone playing and many compositions.
From Blakey he went to Miles Davis, becoming an integral member of his Second Great Quintet before taking his place at the forefront of the Jazz fusion movement in the 70s and 80s.
That round up probably only scratches the surface, though, as this more in-depth look at Wayne Shorter shows.
Key Wayne Shorter album: Speak No Evil
Speak No Evil is the third of eleven Wayne Shorter dates for Blue Note and the choice of personnel highlights the crossroad he was at in the mid-1960s: former Messengers peer Freddie Hubbard on trumpet and new Miles Davis colleagues Herbie Hancock (piano) and Ron Carter (bass) are complemented by Elvin Jones at the drums.
The playing and writing on this album are an interesting counterpoint to his work at the time with Miles Davis, and an opportunity to hear what he composes when it is for himself alone.
Brecker is one of the most famous jazz saxophone players since the death of John Coltrane. Noted for his incredible technical prowess, and for his impressive range and versatility, he is often seen as the important link between the legends of the 50s and 60s and the modern jazz saxophone players who emerged in the 80s and 90s.
His career began in the late 1960s as fusion and jazz rock were becoming the dominant styles, with Brecker working with Steps Ahead and co-leading the Brecker Brothers with his trumpet-playing brother Randy.
However, the tenor saxophone player was no slouch when it came to playing in a more traditional, straight-ahead style either, as he proved with a stint in hard bop pianist Horace Silver’s quintet, and appearances on albums by elder statesmen Chet Baker, Ron Carter and Charles Mingus.
He also had a parallel career as an A-list session musician, contributing classic pop solos to songs by Paul Simon, Donald Fagen, Elton John and countless others.
Brecker died from complications of leukaemia in January 2007. He was inducted into the Downbeat Hall of Fame the same year and awarded a number of posthumous Grammy Awards, taking his total to 15.
Key Michael Brecker recording: Tales From The Hudson
Released in 1996, Brecker’s fourth album as a bandleader won the Grammy Award for Best Instrumental Jazz Album.
The best alto saxophonists in jazz history
Few people have changed the vocabulary of jazz as drastically as Parker, and few musicians have proved so influential.
The Kansas-born alto saxophonist was at the forefront of the bebop movement in New York in the mid-1940s and created a new way of playing over chord changes, with chromatic passing notes linking chord tones together, and a fresh rhythmic vocabulary.
The music was also a resolutely intellectual affair, partially in response to the more populist Swing era that had dominated American music since the 1930s.
Parker’s playing was complex and virtuosic, yet bluesy and fabulously swinging. A number of his compositions – often new melodies written over the chord sequences of existing songs – have become part of the standard repertoire.
Sadly, he struggled with substance addiction, and was just 34 when he died in 1955.
Key recording: Charlie Parker with Strings
Much of Charlie Parker’s recorded output came before the LP era, and the live recordings are the place to go to hear him really stretch out.
But this album, with Parker accompanied by a classical string section and jazz rhythm section is essential.
The solo on ‘Just Friends’ is one of his most acclaimed.
Julian “Cannonball” Adderley was one of the most distinctive and important alto saxophone voices to appear on the jazz scene in the aftermath of Charlie Parker’s bebop revolution.
Adderley was certainly influenced by Bird, but had a distinctive and soulful style all his own.
In 1957 he met Miles Davis, who was impressed with the young alto sax player and agreed to play on Cannonball’s record Somethin’ Else (featured here in a list of great Cannonball Adderley albums) which would turn out to be one of the trumpeter’s final appearances as a sideman.
In return, the jazz saxophonist joined Davis’ group, recording the seminal albums Milestones and Kind of Blue, both of which were important documents of the new modal jazz approach that was being explored at the time.
Adderley also led a quintet with his brother, trumpeter Nat. Their group pioneered Soul jazz, a funky variation on hard bop, and would later experiment with funky electric instrumentation.
Key Cannonball Adderley recording: Somethin’ Else
Cannonball’s most famous album features the alto saxophonist as his ebullient, blues-drenched best.
Coleman sent shockwaves through the jazz world when his quartet arrived in New York in 1959 with a much-discussed residency at the Five Spot.
His new free jazz stylings saw him abandoning traditional chord sequences and structures with a technique known as a ‘time-no-changes’, while Ornette has also referred, somewhat mysteriously, to the concept of ‘harmolodics’ in his music.
Coleman was a self-taught and highly unconventional saxophone player.
His high-profile detractors included Miles Davis and Charles Mingus and, while he couldn’t tear through chord changes at any tempo and in any key in the way that Stan Getz or Sonny Stitt could, for example, he had an impact upon the narrative of jazz that few others could match.
Key Ornette Coleman recording: The Shape of Jazz to Come
Despite the depth and brilliance of the Ornette Coleman discography, this one (from 1959) is undoubtedly his best know. It features a number of his most memorable compositions, including ‘Lonely Woman’ and ‘Peace’.
An utterly unique voice, his alto playing is somewhat unpolished, but undeniably melodic and steeped in the blues. Ornette’s most important collaborator, Don Cherry, is heard on cornet.
With a relentless commitment to “pure” improvisation, Lee Konitz was one of the most distinctive voices in jazz.
In the early part of his career the alto saxophonist was a disciple of the strict teaching method of Lennie Tristano and was associated with the so-called Cool jazz scene that emerged in the early 1950s.
But Konitz forged a sound and professional path that were all his own, recording and performing with an incredibly diverse range of collaborators over the course of a career that spanned more than seven decades.
Key Lee Konitz Album: Motion
1961’s Motion is perhaps the ultimate document of Konitz’s musical philosophy.
On a selection of five Songbook standards he declines to even state the melody at the start of each tune, instead diving straight into inspired off-the-cuff creation.
Check up our round up of 10 of the best Lee Konitz albums here.
Born in California in 1925, Art Pepper came to prominence during the 1950s as one of the major soloists of the West Coast and cool jazz movements. But his playing changed dramatically later in his career, as he took on the influence of new stylistic developments in the jazz world.
His personal life was eventful, intriguing and tragic: he struggled with various personal demons and a long-running drug addiction, which saw him spend time in prison and rehab. This partly explains why Pepper has made some of the most memorable appearances in jazz-related media, both in print and on film.
Key album: Art Pepper Meets the Rhythm Section
Recorded in 1957, this is one of Pepper’s most famous albums.
The rhythm section in question is composed of pianist Red Garland, bassist Paul Chambers and drummer Philly Jones; at the time the New York-based trio were all members of Miles Davis’ First Great Quintet.
Learn more about Art Pepper’s life and music here.
Sonny Stitt is something of an anomaly in this list, given that he has recorded acclaimed albums as both an alto and tenor sax player!
We’ve included him in the alto half due to the fact he emerged in the early 1940s with Charlie Parker as a key early influence. Suggestions that he was a ‘copy’ of the alto saxophonist great, though, are unfair; as drummer Kenny Clarke said “even if there had not been a Bird, there would have been a Sonny Stitt.”
Playing with fellow bebop luminaries such as Dizzy Gillespie, Eddie ‘Lockjaw’ Davis and Dexter Gordon in his early days, his career saw the saxophonist tour and record relentlessly, with his final sessions coming just 6 weeks before his death in 1982.
With more than 100 recordings, we took on the unenviable task picking 5 essentials in our in-depth guide to Sonny Stitt here.
Key Sonny Stitt Album: New York Jazz
Produced by Norman Granz, it features a killer rhythm section including Jimmy Jones on piano, Ray Brown on bass and Jo Jones on drums.
Stitt’s bebop stylings are on full display here, with blistering solos and hi-octane versions of jazz standards such as Twelfth Street Rag and I Know That You Know.
Despite the Parker comparisons, his playing his fresh, inventive and highly distinctive. The medium tempo versions of jazz standards ‘Alone Together’ & ‘Between The Devil And The Deep Blue Sea’ give the listener another great insight into his hard-swinging, blues-inflected, hard-swinging style.
Thanks for checking out this list of jazz saxophone legends and hope it helped you rediscover some brilliant music in lots of different styles.
There are, of course, many other amazing saxophonists missing from this list, on both alto and tenor, so we’ll be updating from time to time – feel free to leave your suggestions in the comments below!
If you’re looking for a more modern list, check out this round up of saxophonists who emerged on the 80s & 90s jazz scene which includes artists such as Mark Turner, Chris Potter & Melissa Aldana.
If you’re looking for tips, articles and guides on playing saxophone, you can all related articles here.
Lastly, it’s worth mentioning that whilst the saxophone often takes the limelight, many of its players also make use of i’s close cousins the flute and clarinet. To give an initial brief insight into that, we’ve compiled a list of some of the best jazz clarinet players of all time as well as an in-depth profile of legendary jazz flutist Herbie Mann.
The label ‘Discover Jazz’ is attached to articles which have been edited and published by Jazzfuel host Matt Fripp, but have been written in collaboration with various different jazz musicians and industry contributors. When appropriate, these musicians are quoted and name-checked inside the article itself!