Probably in an ideal world, you have an excellent booking agent and a highly effective music manager overseeing every step of your career as a gigging and album-releasing jazz artist, right?
That’s not an unachievable goal, but the steps you need to take to get there – ironically – mean learning how to take care good care of both those roles yourself for now.
In this article, I’ve tried to break down all the possible jobs that an agent and manager takes care of, in my experience.
To turn these two broad and often mysterious jobs into something more tangible. I hope you’ll see just how many of the tasks you could quite easily control yourself right away – if you’re not already.
You can find the list below, but first here’s my quick summary of the booking agent and artist manager roles. These are not definitive and change from genre to genre and as a career gets bigger, but are based on my personal-professional experience of doing both for jazz musicians…
Jazz Booking Agent…
Technically, the role of a booking agent is very simple: they book gigs. They identify the right clubs and festivals for your music, they motivate the decision makers to book you, they negotiate the financial offer and they get a contract signed. These days, they might also book travel and prepare schedules. But that, in a nutshell, is what they do. And they do it for a fixed % of the gross fee.
But for an agent to have success with your project, there are a lot of other things that need to be in place. Traditionally, this is the role of the manager. But, with so few managers out there in the world of jazz, you are increasingly needing to take care of this yourself. Which leads us to…
The role of an artist manager is much harder to quantify. There are plenty of analogies, but I think ‘CEO of a small start-up’ is a good one. They are at the top of the pyramid overseeing everything and everyone involved in the artists’ career. Which, at the beginning, might just be the two of you! But it’s not just ‘overseeing.’ They are also getting their hands dirty with whatever is required on a day-to-day basis to make progress. And I guess in this analogy the artist is the founder… the ideas [wo]man… the creative one who everyone else is supporting and working to achieve the goals for.
“To be a good music manager you need to be organised, excellent with people and have a good understanding of the industry as it stands today” – The Guardian, “What Does A Music Manager Do?”
A quick note on DIY
Let’s not forget that the end goal is to have a great career as a musician (whichever direction that is for you). Having an agent & manager is just the most obvious and traditional way of getting there. But if you can take matters into your own hands, for now at least, there’s no reason why you can’t make massive strides forwards with your career right away…
Despite what some of you might think, there really are plenty of musicians out there doing a killer job with the non-playing side of their career and enjoying the gigs that inevitably follow.
Anyway, here’s my list. If anyone has suggestions to add, there’s a comments section at the end.
Booking jazz gigs: an agent’s job
- Plan tour period(s) and announce to contacts
It helps to have some focus when booking gigs. EPs or albums are obvious focal points, but you can of course tour without. It just helps (both for your planning and promoter motivation) if there’s a specific period to aim for.
- Research new venues & festivals & maintain a good database of contacts
You can’t get good gigs without good contacts. They’re all out there, you just need to do the research… And once you’ve got them, you need to keep in touch with them and keep them up-to-date.
- Follow up with the right promoters at the right time
Having a strategy for how and when to contact promoters for a 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, time….
- Select video/audio links to use for pitching
Putting on your promoter hat to figure out which are the best links to be sending. No more emails with 10+ links!
- Write pitching emails
Those key sentences that will grab the attention of promoters and make them want to click ‘listen’ or ‘reply’ on your email. (need help with this?)
- Update target contacts with news
Not just sticking to a plan for pitching, but reacting to news and making sure that all relevant promoters are aware of it.
- Negotiate fee + other conditions for gigs
Once a jazz club or festival is interested, fixing how much they’ll pay and what other things need to be included in the deal (typically hotels, technical, hospitality, local transport, but all needs confirming)
- Decide required fees and plan for building these (w/manager)
Thinking more long term with artist and/or manager for what they ‘need’ for a show and how this might grow as their profile and demand does.
- Find and then co-ordinate local agents, where necessary
For some territories, there are local specialists who can add real value to an artist’s career in that territory. France is a good example of this. Growing this network of contacts around the world can be really effective, but still needs careful managing.
Admin of touring: an agent’s role
Most of these are more self-explanatory and simple, but needless to say, very important. Whilst not necessarily complicated, they can be time-consuming. If you are not naturally organised, you might want to think about getting someone on an hourly admin-rate to help with some of these…
- Negotiate performance contract & rider and get it signed
- Send invoices and make sure deposits are paid
- Send setlist/composer details to promoter for rights collection
- Send musician names, passport details & addresses to promoter
- Collect logistical info from promoter (e.g. soundcheck time, hotels & local transportation)
- Fix announcement date for shows (w/manager)
- Send one-sheet (photos, bios, videos, quotes) for festival/venue publicity materials
- Pass on venue/festival ticket links for artist social media & website
- *Co-ordinate press requests with artist/management
- *Prepare technical & hospitality rider
- *Book travel & produce schedule for promoter & band
- *Help apply for work permits & VISAs
- *Fill in tax forms
* = sometimes manager, sometimes agent…
General career promotion: a music manager’s job
- Oversee and up-to-date and effective website
- Pitch to relevant press/journalists or oversee publicist
- Ideas for ‘news‘ to share with team
Whether you’re just starting out or already touring internationally, you need to be creating news – reasons for people to check you out – to make progress. Releasing music is the #1 type of news as a gigging musician, but it’s not happening frequently enough to suffice on its own. For that reason, there’s a real need to brainstorm ideas for ore news and put them into practice. Whether that’s filming a music video or putting together an EP, the manager is often crucial in getting the creative process started and keeping everyone motivated and on-schedule throughout.
- Help put together a 12+ month plan for touring and releasing music
If you are going to ‘succeed’ in your career, you need to have targets & goals. “Being a touring jazz musician” or “play at international jazz festivals” might be what you really want to do, but they are not very well-defined. A manager should help turn these ideas into specific plans, with step-by-step methods and measurable goals. Focusing the mind on what you want to achieve has amazing results and it’s important to always know what’s next.
- Get promo materials ready for release/tour deadlines
- Oversee newsletter for fans (content, sign ups, schedule)
- Arrange promo videos (lyric videos, ‘making of’ videos, music videos)
- Draft social media posts / nudge artist to do this
These days, social media is a hugely important tool in building your fanbase and showing potential promoters, labels & journalists what you’re doing. Every artist feels differently about this and, in my opinion, it’s the managers job to get a feel for what needs doing and make sure – somehow – that it’s done regularly. I’m a big believer that representatives should not be regularly posting as the artist – it’s obvious and misses the point of social media – but drafting, nudging and sharing can be important.
- Investigate sponsorship & endorsement possibilities
- Accepting/rejecting offers for touring (usually via the agent)
Despite the name, a manager works for the artist and not the other way around. Despite that, a good artist-manager relationship is one where their ideals are well-aligned and there’s a lot of trust. So whilst the musician generally makes the final call on important decisions, a manager is well-placed to advise on these and is often required to push for a ‘no’ when it serves the long-term plan. Turning down gigs or opportunities is always counter-intuitive to a musician but can be as important as the things you say ‘yes’ to.
- Other revenue streams
Aside from the obvious area of playing gigs and touring, a manager will usually also think about other possible revenue streams that could be built into what you do. Depending on your situation, this could include writing music for film & TV, performing as a sideman, producing merchandise to sell, monetising a large reach on social media (Youtube/Instagram in particular)…
- Build your network
In order to build your career – both in terms of touring and everything else – people need to know you and be motivated to support you in some way. A good manager is not only able to introduce you to useful people they’re already connected with, but figure out who you need to meet to get ahead and to then try to engineer that.
Releasing Music: a manager’s job
- Look at best options for release: label? self-release? digital only? EP first?
- Introduce you to a lawyer & record labels
To have a strong career, it’s like you’ll have multiple people working with you at various points. This might be short-term relationships, like publicists and designers (for an album release) or more long term like a record label and lawyer. In all these cases, the managers role is to help identify the right people for each of these jobs, to get them on board and then to make sure everyone is working on the right things.
- Book studio & musicians
- Set deadlines make sure they’re stuck to
- Oversee recording budget
- Creative input on music
Unlike a lot of jobs, it’s very difficult to stereotype a music manager. They tend to fall into the job from a huge range of directions, from entertainment lawyer or music accountant through to producer, promoter or even musician. For this reason, the approach differs greatly, but the manager should always be able to give opinions and suggestions on music, to some degree. Whether that’s taking on the role of an A&R and coming up with suggestions, or just giving feedback on final mixes.
- Fix release date
- Help collate credits & liner notes
- Arrange for photo shoot & artwork design
Admin: a manager’s job
Alongside some of the more intangible work of a manager to generally grow the artists’ career in whatever way possible, there’s also the very important role of ‘taking care of business.’ Arranging travel for a touring musician is not only important in getting them to the right places on time, but – done efficiently – can also save thousands of pounds/dollars/euros a year. Similarly, filling in foreign tax forms and waivers, preparing invoices and making sure sidemen are paid are the not-so-glamourous essentials to running the ‘business’ of a musician.
- Manage artist diary (a gmail calendar can do this effectively)
- Check band availability for shows & agree fees with musicians
- Banking/payments (or oversee an accountant doing this)
- Budgeting/financial planning with artist
- Help register music with relevant collection societies (like PPL in the UK)
- Funding applications (there can be a lot of money out there for those willing to jump through the hoops!)
- *Co-ordinate press requests with artist
- *Prepare technical & hospitality rider for agent to use
- *Book flights, hotels & trains (I use Skyscanner, Booking.com & Trainline)
- *Produce schedule for tours
- *Help apply for work permits & VISAs (via a lawyer)
- *Fill in tax forms
* For newer artists, it might be done by an agent if there is no manager in place…
So that’s the list.
You might also notice how many of those jobs you could actually pass onto someone else to do for you, if you want. It’s a very simple decision of time vs money, but it’s good to know that option’s open to you. I’ve ‘overseen’ at least 5 tasks on this list in just the last few days:
- Promo video for an artist (I published an example here)
- Produce travel schedules for a tour (I have a colleague who is amazing at these details)
- Update agency database with some new contacts (I paid a virtual assistant to copy a website list of festivals onto a spreadsheet)
- Chase up on a due deposit invoice (this isn’t even a human job, I use Xero – there are lots of other choices!)
- Social media posts (I scheduled the non-time-sensitive ones last week so they went out automatically)
If I’ve missed something, feel free to write in the comment section. And I hope that at least a few of the points have given you extra ideas for how you can get your project moving quicker, if you don’t have an agent or manager in place already.